I’ve been kicking around an idea for how to improve the Parrot Calling Conventions (PCC). Two years ago we went through and did a major refactor on that system, unifying all the various code paths to use a single central dispatch and argument processing mechanism. The new system uses the CallContext PMC type to aggregate all parameters for a call. The caller always puts arguments into the CallContext, and the callee always retrieves parameters from it. Since Parrot uses CPS, the same mechanism is used for returns as well. This unification was a great step for Parrot, it was an important way for us to start getting some of our implementation realities in line with some of the theoretical underpinnings on which Parrot has been designed, such as unified CPS. The most important part of these refactors was the conversion to use CallContext objects throughout the code base as the way to package up and perform invocations. Other changes we made to the system were all tangential or ancillary, and nothing else is quite so important or so sacrosanct that we should not be willing to go back and have some second thoughts.

PCC is a pretty good system, and the use of CallContexts is a huge step forward from where we were before the refactors started. I don’t want to fundamentally change that aspect of PCC. Back when we did the refactors the hope was that by unifying call code paths around the CallContext PMC, that we would be able to identify more hotpaths and perform new types of optimizations throughout. Unfortunately, we really haven’t delivered on this the way we should have. Part of the reason is that the first refactor was such a huge undertaking and brought some real pain to our hackers and users alike. So long as PCC continues to work, we haven’t been too keen to jump in and fiddle with it again.

I think there are plenty of things we can do to improve performance in the PCC system by simplifying some of the hot codepaths, and making better use of compile-time information which we currently discard. First I’m going to explain how things currently work, and then I’m going to talk about what my ideas are for changing it. This is not an exhaustive list of possible improvements, just the few that I have in mind right now.

In Parrot, invocations (function, method, exception handler, and continuation) are a multi-step process. First, we have to lookup the subroutine object. This can be either a constant value, a Sub stored in a NameSpace, or a method stored in an object/class. We create a CallContext object by passing in a signature array with a series of flags and using those flags to insert a list of arguments into the CallContext. We store the CallContext in the interpreter, then invoke the Sub object.

On the callee side, we use a signature array along with the CallContext to unpack the arguments into registers. The unpacking happens in a function called fill_params, which is a huge behemoth of a function. Actually that’s not fair. It’s a behemoth in the context of Parrot, where we tend to appreciate shorter functions. Other projects might not think it’s so large in comparison. fill_params uses a series of loops to get the arguments. It loops over the flags in the signature, and depending on what each flag is, it pulls the next value out of the CallContext and inserts it into the specified register.

I have two problems with this system: The first are the signatures, integer array PMCs stored as constants in the packfile. These are really weird and suboptimal ways to store the information about the function arguments and parameters. What is obnoxious about these is that we have to loop over these signature arrays to pull arguments out of the caller context. However, at compilation time we already know what arguments to pass, and could easily generate a custom sequence of argument passing args without ever needing to use a signature. Instead of a signature array containing data about how to pass arguments and retrieve parameters, we could simply output a sequence of ops that did exactly what we needed. If we need a signature, such as in multi-dispatch, we can generate those lazily on the fly. The second problem is with fill_params, which needlessly loops over the parameter signature to extract parameters and insert them into the callee context. I dislike this for exactly the same reason, we have the information we need at PIR compile time and we can easily generate a stream of custom fetch ops for the specific things we need instead of generating a signature at compile time and then needing to interpret that signature at runtime every time we make a call. In short, we have plenty of information available at compile time, but we discard it and compress it into signatures. Every time we make a call at runtime, every time, we need to loop over two signatures: one to fetch args from the caller, and one to deposit params into the callee. Multiply this by two when you remember that Parrot uses CPS, so every return is also a call (along with two more signatures). I suggest we shouldn’t need any signature arrays for most calls, and I suggest we shouldn’t need any loops for most calls either.

I’ve also left out the part where fill_params creates temporary PMCs to hold flags and data while we traverse signatures. We should be able to invoke a subroutine or method call without generating any temporary object garbage. This will save on GC pressure too, which is a win-win for everybody.

When we make a call in PIR, it typically looks like this:

(ret1, ret2, ...) = 'function'(arg1, arg2, ...)

This, as our developers should be well aware, is syntactic sugar over a sequence of lower-level PASM ops. Here’s a basic example of what the generated code looks like. I’m using a PASM-like pseudocode, because I can’t remember exactly what it really looks like, and I want this example to be clear for non-insiders to understand.

$P0 = get_function 'function'
$P1 = get_call_signature
set_args $P1, arg1, arg2, ...
invoke $P0
$P1 = get_return_signature
get_results $P1, ret1, ret2, ...

Notice that there are a few problems with this. First, notice that set_args generates a CallContext object, but doesn’t return it to the user. That object is stored directly in the interp. We’re making the (bad) assumption that a set_args call is always immediately followed by an invoke operation, and that there is no possible way that we could get preempted (see also: concurrency). The same thing is true of the get_results opcode, we make the bad assumption that nothing ever happens between the time the invocation returns and the time we try to read the returns CallContext values out of the interp. This needs to get fixed if we want concurrency, and also if we want users to have more flexibility and control in dealing with invocations. I think we do want this, because that opens up whole new ranges of optimization possibilities to the user. Making these changes won’t necessarily improve performance by themselves, however.

As an aside, A call basically consists of three things as far as Parrot is concerned: An invocable object (like a Sub PMC), the arguments (in the form of a CallContext PMC), and an optional return continution to jump back to when the invocation is complete. We should be exposing all these objects directly to the user, and making calls using two invoke ops:

invoke sub, callcontext, retcontinuation
invoke sub, callcontext

Since the invocant to a method call is passed as the first argument in the CallContext, we don’t need other forms of these opcodes to pass in a separate invocant, like Parrot provides now. However, I wont get too far off track with this discussion, I can talk about some of the ops we have (and how they need to change) in later posts if necessary.

The next thing to see in the example above is that the argument-related ops set_args, get_params, set_returns and get_results are all variadic. In fact, they are the only variadic ops in the entire system and there is more than a little bit of logic throughout Parrot core that could be simplified if we got rid of them complete. What we do is this: The signature tells the number and the types of the various arguments. Each argument is a pointer stored directly in the bytecode stream. When we loop over the signature, we dereference subsequent locations in the bytecode stream to fetch the values, and push them into the CallContext from there. Life will get a little bit easier for people working on compilers and related tools (disassemblers, code analyzers, etc) if we don’t have these kinds of ops. It isn’t a concern for most users, but then again having better tools can help those people too.

The set opcodes, set_args and set_returns loop over the signature and push values from the caller context into the CallContext PMC for the call. This process is relatively straight-forward, although not without some inefficiencies. On the fetch side, get_params and get_results, need to do much harder work. This is where that fill_params function comes in. fill_params loops over the receiver signature, and starts hunting for values in the CallContext to match the specific needs. fill_params needs to compare the number of passed arguments with the number of expected parameters and, depending on settings, throw errors. It needs to determine if :optional params get filled or not, and if an :opt_flag is provided (and provided in the exact correct order) that it is set accordingly. It needs to handle :slurpy. It needs to fetch named arguments, determining what to do if we don’t have named arguments that we’ve asked for and if we have named arguments that we have not asked for. As if that wasn’t complicated enough, we need to correctly handle :named :optional and other combinations. Also, fill_params needs to coerce arguments to the correct types. For instance, if we pass an integer and expect a PMC, we need to autobox. This is a heck of a lot of work for this single function, and the results performance-wise are not exemplary. As I mentioned yesterday, bacek was seeing this function alone take up 12% of execution time during the Rakudo core.pm build. That’s huge.

So what can we do? What should this look like? How can we cut out cruft? How can we make this faster?

I suggest we should get away from the four do-it-all ops, set_args, get_params, set_returns and get_results. They are all problematic and they all need to go. Being variadic means they are hard to deal with and tools which operate on bytecode (disassemblers, debuggers, anaylizers) all need to add a heck of a lot of logic to deal with them. Also, because they use bitflags to encode information about the call into an array, calls are harder for users to control directly and set up manually.

Second, I suggest that we have all the information we need to make an efficient call at compile time. We shouldn’t condense the details down into a signature, then have to go to lengths to interpret that signature in a large loop. CallContext is an object with array-like and hash-like interfaces, and we have opcodes for interacting with arrays and hashes. Since the opcodes call the corresponding vtables directly, and those same vtables are used in fill_params and elsewhere to put values into and extract values from the CallContext, there’s no speed savings doing it all internally. The only things we would need are a handful of new ops to handle some of the special cases like :optional, :slurpy and :flat.

Here’s an example call

($P0 :slurpy, $P1 :named("foo")) = 'func'($P2 :flat, $P3 :named("bar"))

Let’s see what this could look like if we cleaned it all up and used ops for setting and fetching arguments and results:

$P8 = get_function 'func'
$P9 = new 'CallContext'
set_arg_flat $P9, $P2
$P9["bar"] = $P3
invoke $P8, $P9
$P10 = get_return_callcontext $P9
$P0 = get_param_slurpy $P10
$P1 = $P10["foo"]

Notice that not only should this sequence be thread-safe because we aren’t storing the CallContext in the interp temporarily between subsequent opcode calls, but that it’s simple and straight forward. This sequence would be easy to disassemble and analyze, requires no signature constants from the packfile, and requires no loops. We know exactly what arguments we want to pass, and we just pass them. We know exactly what results we want to fetch, so we just fetch them.

Notice also in the example above that we create the CallContext and pass it around in user code. We don’t manage it and store it internally, which means the compiler can have opportunities to recycle and reuse them between similar calls in a loop, for instance. In the current system, there really is no opportunity to share CallContext PMCs between subsequent calls, so we need to create them fresh for each one. That’s a lot of churn and a lot of GC pressure for no benefit.

Here’s an example where a CallContext could easily be reused between calls as an optimization:

for (var data in data_set)
    obj.my_method(data);

In that loop we could have a single CallContext object, with the first value always set to the invocant obj, and simply replace the value of data on each iteration. That could amount to huge savings, including far less GC pressure than what we currently do. Of course, it would be up to the HLL compiler to detect these situations and fold the code appropriately if wanted, but it’s not even possible to do now.

Here’s another quick example of some of my proposed changes, from the callee side:

.sub foo
    .param pmc bar :optional
    .param int has_bar :opt_flag
    ...

We can convert this into something like:

.sub foo
    $P0 = get_current_context
    bar = $P0[0]
    has_bar = exists $P0[0]
    ...

Again, for this short example we don’t need any special new ops or new functionality, we just use the existing ops and vtables on the CallContext in ways we already support. As we saw in the example above, we no longer need any kind of a signature PMC, we don’t need any loops. We know exactly what we want to get and we go get it. This version should not be any slower than what we currently have with fill_params, and might be a good deal faster if we can cut out extra GC churn.

As a consequence of this, a lot of the remaining ugly code in the PCC subsystem involved in creating, examining, and looping over signatures can disappear. Those are ugly holdovers from the “before time”, and there’s no reason we need to continue cargo culting them around in Parrot. fill_params and supporting functions can disappear because they are no longer necessary. Combine this with a few other changes to returns and removing some special cases there should bring even more benefits.

Consider also the case of multiple dispatch. If parameter and argument lists are not fixed in constant signature arrays, the user has much more control over what arguments to fetch, and in what order. The user could choose not to fetch certain arguments at all! Consider a function which takes a string command, and depending on the value of the command takes a variable-length sequence of additional parameters. Currently, the way to do that might be to use multiple dispatch to choose between candidates with different argument lists, and in each one we would check that the value of the command is consistant with the received argument list arity. MMD comes with its own overhead, so this is only going to make performance worse. Instead, the user can read the first parameter, then decide what additional parameters to read, if any. We don’t have to fetch parameters we don’t need, and if we are really lazy about it we can avoid fetching certain parameters at all, in some situations.

In short, a few points: 1. Expose the CallContext vtable interface directly to the user, for more flexibility and control 2. Get rid of signature strings, loops, and fill_params 3. Use existing opcodes, where possible, to interact with the call context. Create new opcodes as needed. 4. Kill the variadic opcodes for setting and fetching params. They’re ugly and inefficient.

Basically, I want to give the user more control and improve performance by deleting code and creating far fewer PMCs for signature arrays and far fewer temporaries during PCC dispatch. It’s a win-win as far as I can see.

How do we get there?

The hard part is getting there. Right now we would need to modify IMCC to output a new sequence of argument passing and parameter fetching ops, in place of the old variadic opcodes. This is no small task. I tried making these changes in a branch as proof-of-concept and the results were not pretty. This is partially because I still have a lot to learn about the way IMCC works, and also because when I first tried, I didn’t go all out. I tried to preserve too much of the existing behavior for backwards compatibility and I ended up having to code circles around where I really needed to be. To embrace this idea fully, we need to make changes throughout IMCC, including some changes which (I hope) will simplify IMCC logic quite a bit.

So long as everybody uses the PIR sugar and does not attempt to use the PASM opcodes directly, the switchover should be mostly transparent from the perspective of the user. People and tests still using PASM to make calls are going to be in for a rude awakening (can we kill those old PASM tests already?) Once the switchover happens, we can start exposing the opcode functionality directly to the user, and then start removing the superfluous syntactic sugar for .param declarations.

This is an idea for refactors that I sincerely believe has merit and could bring real performance benefits. I don’t think the performance benefits are going to be gigantic, but then again when you combine decreased PCC overhead with decreased GC churn, there very well might be real savings to be had. There are other bottlenecks in PCC dispatch that we will need to tackle as well which I don’t even mention here. However, this is sure to bring at least some performance benefits and also a number of other benefits as well.