NotFound is the author of Winxed, the lowish-level Parrot language that I use the most. I find it’s much closer to the underlying machine than NQP-rx is, and when you’re a core developer developing core components, that kind of closeness and predictability is a big plus. I won’t get into a big discussion here about the relative merits of Winxed and NQP, or any other languages, I’m only pointing out that when I need to write code for execution on Parrot, I prefer to use Winxed for most cases.

Because I use it so often, I end up generating lots of feedback for NotFound. To his credit, he has a pretty strong vision of what the language should be, and where my feedback conflicts with his goals, he does things his own way. That’s a good thing. Clarity and consistency of vision is an important thing for any project, programming languages especially.

Two days ago I suggested to him that a more concise syntax for creating anonymous subroutines and closures would be a big benefit. At least, it would be a nice benefit for me because I end up writing lots of them as part of Rosella, and I end up using lots and lots of them in the examples and tests for Rosella.

He expressed some concerns that the new syntax, in addition to the old syntax, would be a confusing duplication, and the meaning of a shorter syntax would not be obvious or particularly readable for new users of the language. And, considering that Winxed itself is a new language, almost all users of it will be new users. Here’s the current syntax for creating an anonymous subroutine in winxed:

var f = function() { say("hello!"); };

After a surprisingly short and easy hacking session last night, I added a proof-of-concept new syntax to the parser that looks like this:

var f = -> { say("hello!"); };
var g = -> (x) { say(x); };

With the new syntax, if we don’t have any parameters we can leave out the parenthesis entirely. Basically, the new syntax allows us to change the ‘function’ keyword with the operator ‘->’, and optionally omit the parenthesis. It’s an improvement, but not super-duper. Because Winxed allows hash-literals to be defined with curly brackets, we can’t have a syntax of just brackets, like what NQP can do. In NQP-rx:

my &f := { pir::say("Hello!"); };

NQP-rx can get away with just the brackets to indicate a code literal, because it doesn’t conflict with a syntax for hash literals. Winxed does have the hash literals syntax so it cannot have unambiguous simple closures like this. It’s not really much of a loss, the two extra characters to type, “->” really isn’t much overhead, and it’s still less than writing ‘function’.

To see the benefit in readability of the new syntax, consider something like an example from the Rosella Query library documentation:

var data = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9];
using Rosella.Query.as_queryable;
int sum = as_queryable(data)
    .map(function(i) { return i * i; })
    .filter(function(j) { return j % 2; })
    .fold(function(s, i) { return s + i; })
say(sum);   # 165

We can rewrite that middle part as:

int sum = as_queryable(data)
    .map(->(i) { return i * i; })
    .filter(->(j) { return j % 2; })
    .fold(->(s, i) { return s + i; })

I think this is a lot cleaner and more readable. It isn’t as thin as it could be, we’re still typing a few extra characters for situations where we really just want to have a simple expression wrapped in a closure. With a little bit more work tonight, I thinned down the syntax even further, for cases where the closure is going to be a single expression:

var f = ->(i) i * i;

Where the sequence after the “->” and the parameter list could be a single expression instead of being a block, and the result of that expression would be implicitly returned when the closure was executed. For reference, the same thing in NQP-rx would be:

my &f := -> $i { $i * $i };

So we’re doing pretty good, for these simple cases.

With this newest version of the syntax, the Query example can be reduced to:

int sum = as_queryable(data)
    .map(->(i) i * i)
    .filter(->(j) j % 2)
    .fold(->(s, i) s + i)

This is just hypothetical, of course. I have written this patch and tested it lightly. It does have some issues, especially with built-in functions and a few other situations where the expression parser gets confused. Also, whether the patch works or not, there’s no expectation that NotFound would accept it into Winxed master. I like it, and I would make immediate use of it, but I can get along just fine without it too.

I’m going to keep playing with my patch and see what else I can do with it. I need to fix some of the brokenness that I mentioned, and play around with the implementation a little bit. It’s easy to play with since the Winxed source is so hackable. I’m also looking at creating a new syntax for easily looking up functions in namespace. Right in winxed, if we wanted to call a function in a different namespace we would have to do:


For comparison, NQP-rx would allow us to write this in one line:


I would like something similar for Winxed, something that would allow us to call a function from another namespace directly with an implicit lookup, without needing a separate, explicit lookup instruction. I don’t know what this syntax would be. I was thinking we could reuse the using syntax like this:


But that seems kind of crappy. Maybe we could use something like this:


Winxed does draw inspiration from C++, and the * is a “lookup” in some sense of the word. Again, this is a situation where even if I do write up a patch, it would be up to NotFound to accept it or not. I may be better off waiting for him to make a decision and then I can spend the effort to try and implement it. It’s not super-high priority, but it would help to make some ugly code much more readable, and I’m all about readability.